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The first documented involuntary community quarantine was established by the Ottoman quarantine reform in The word "quarantine" originates from quarantenathe Venetian language form, meaning "forty days". Dubrovnik was the first city in Europe to set up quarantine sites such as the Lazzarettos of Dubrovnik where arriving ship personnel were held for up to 40 days.
Other diseases lent themselves to the practice of quarantine before and after the devastation of the plague. Those afflicted with leprosy were historically isolated long-term from society, and attempts were made to check the spread of syphilis in northern Europe afterthe advent of yellow fever in Spain at the beginning of the 19th century, and the arrival of Asiatic cholera in Venice took the lead in measures to check the spread of plague, having appointed three guardians of public health in the first years of the Black Death Venice founded the first lazaret on a small island adjoining the city in In Genoa followed the example of Venice, and in the old leper hospital of Marseille was converted into a plague hospital.
The practice at all the Mediterranean lazarets did not differ from the English procedure in the Levantine and North African trade. On the arrival of cholera in some new lazarets were set up at western ports, notably a very extensive establishment near Bordeauxafterwards turned to another use. Epidemics of yellow fever ravaged urban communities in North America throughout the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries, the best-known examples being the Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic  and outbreaks in Georgia and Florida During the influenza pandemic, some communities instituted protective sequestration sometimes referred to as "reverse quarantine" to keep the infected from introducing influenza into healthy populations.
By the middle of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire had established quarantine stations, including in Anatolia and the Balkans. For example, at the port of Izmirall ships and their cargo would be inspected and those suspected of carrying the plague would be towed to separate docks and their personnel housed in separate buildings for a determined period of time.
In Thessalyalong the Greek-Turkish border, all travellers entering and exiting the Ottoman Empire would be quarantined for 9—15 days. Upon appearance of the plague, the quarantine stations would be militarised and the Ottoman army would be involved in border control and disease monitoring. Since several conferences were held involving European powers, with a view to uniform action in keeping out infection from the East and preventing its spread within Europe.
All but that of were concerned with cholera. No result came of those at ParisConstantinopleViennaand Romebut each of the subsequent ones doctrine of constructive infection of a ship as coming from a scheduled port, and an approximation to the principles advocated by Great Britain for many years.
The principal countries which retained the old system at the time were Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Greece and Russia the British possessions at the time, Gibraltar, Malta and Cyprus, being under the same influence.
The aim of each international sanitary convention had been to bind the governments to a uniform minimum of preventive action, with further restrictions permissible to individual countries. The minimum specified by international conventions was very nearly the same as the British practice, which had been in turn adapted to continental opinion in the matter of the importation of rags.
The Venice convention of 30 January dealt with cholera by the Suez Canal route; that of Dresden of 15 Aprilwith cholera within European countries; that of Paris of 3 Aprilwith cholera by the pilgrim traffic; and that of Venice, on 19 Marchwas in connection with the outbreak of plague in the East, and the conference met to settle on an international basis the steps to be taken to prevent, if possible, its spread into Europe. An additional convention was signed in Paris on 3 December A multilateral international sanitary convention was concluded at Paris on 17 January It was signed by 40 countries, and consisted of articles.
Ratifications by 16 of the signatories were exchanged in Paris on 7 October Another multilateral convention was signed in Paris on 21 Juneto replace that of It was signed by 58 countries worldwide, and consisted of articles. In Latin America, a series of regional sanitary conventions were concluded.
Such a convention was concluded in Rio de Janeiro on 12 June A sanitary convention between the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay was concluded in Montevideo on 21 April It was ratified by the Uruguayan government on 13 Octoberby the Paraguayan government on 27 September and by the Brazilian government on 18 January Sanitary conventions were also concluded between European states.
A Soviet-Latvian sanitary convention was signed on 24 Junefor which ratifications were exchanged on 18 October Ratifications were exchanged on 11 July One of the first points to be dealt with in was to settle the incubation period for this disease, and the period to be adopted for administrative purposes. It was admitted that the incubation period was, as a rule, a comparatively short one, namely, of some three or four days.
After much discussion ten days was accepted by a very large majority. The principle of disease notification was unanimously adopted. Each government had to notify to other governments on the existence of plague within their several jurisdictions, and at the same time state the measures of prevention which are being carried out to prevent its diffusion.
The area deemed to be infected was limited to the actual district or village where the disease prevailed, and no locality was deemed to be infected merely because of the importation into it of a few cases of plague while there has been no diffusion of the malady.
As regards the precautions to be taken on land frontiers, it was decided that during the prevalence of plague every country had the inherent right to close its land frontiers against traffic. As regards the Red Seait was decided after discussion that a healthy vessel could pass through the Suez Canal, and continue its voyage in the Mediterranean during the period of incubation of the disease the prevention of which is in question.
It was also agreed that vessels passing through the Canal in quarantine might, subject to the use of the electric light, coal in quarantine at Port Said by night as well as by day, and that passengers might embark in quarantine at that port.
Infected vessels, if these carry a doctor and are provided with a disinfecting stove, have a right to navigate the Canal, in quarantine, subject only to the landing of those who were suffering from plague. In the 21st century, people suspected of carrying infectious diseases have been quarantined, as in the cases of Andrew Speaker multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, and Kaci Hickox Ebola, This was already the case since the late 20th century.
During the —58 influenza pandemic and the flu pandemicseveral countries implemented measures to control spread of the disease.
In addition, the World Health Organization applied a global influenza surveillance network. After few weeks, the Italian government imposed lockdowns in all the country more than 60 million people to stop the coronavirus pandemic. During the COVID pandemicIndia quarantined itself from the world for a period of one month   Most governments around the world restricted or advised against all non-essential travel to and from countries and areas affected by the outbreak.
Plain yellow, green, and even black flags have been used to symbolise disease in both ships and ports, with the colour yellow having a longer historical precedent, as a colour of marking for houses of infection, previous to its use as a maritime marking colour for disease. The present flag used for the purpose is the "Lima" L flag, which is a mixture of yellow and black flags previously used.
It is sometimes called the "yellow jack" but this was also a name for yellow feverwhich probably derives its common name from the flag, not the colour of the victims cholera ships also used a yellow flag.
The quarantining of people often raises questions of civil rightsespecially in cases of long confinement or segregation from society, such as that of Mary Mallon also known as Typhoid Marya typhoid fever carrier who was arrested and quarantined in and later spent the last 23 years and 7 months of her life in medical isolation at Riverside Hospital on North Brother Island.
Guidance on when and how human rights can be restricted to prevent the spread of infectious disease is found in The Siracusa Principles, a non-binding document developed by the Siracusa International Institute for Criminal Justice and Human Rights and adopted by the United Nations Economic and Social Council in Quarantine can have negative psychological effects on those that are quarantined.
These include post-traumatic stressconfusion and anger. According to a "Rapid Review" published in The Lancet in response to the COVID pandemic"Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma.
Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.
Quarantine periods can be very short, such as in the case of a suspected anthrax attack, in which people are allowed to leave as soon as they shed their potentially contaminated garments and undergo a decontamination shower. For example, an article entitled "Daily News workers quarantined" describes a brief quarantine that lasted until people could be showered in a decontamination tent. Standard-Times senior correspondent Steve Urbon 14 February describes such temporary quarantine powers:.
Civil rights activists in some cases have objected to people being rounded up, stripped and showered against their will. But Capt. Chmiel said local health authorities have "certain powers to quarantine people".
The purpose of such quarantine-for-decontamination is to prevent the spread of contamination and to contain the contamination such that others are not put at risk from a person fleeing a scene where contamination is suspect. It can also be used to limit exposure, as well as eliminate a vector. Biosecurity in Australia is governed by the Biosecurity Act The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service AQIS is responsible for border inspection of products brought into Australia, and assesses the risks the products might harm Australian environment.
Visitors are required to fill in the information card on arriving in Australia. Besides other risk factors, visitors are required to declare what food and products made of wood and other natural materials they have. Australia has very strict quarantine standards. Quarantine in northern Australia is especially important because of its proximity to South-East Asia and the Pacific, which have many pests and diseases not present in Australia. For this reason, the region from Cairns to Broome—including the Torres Strait —is the focus for quarantine activities that protect all Australians.
The first legislation is enforced by the Canada Border Services Agency after a complete rewrite in The second Quarantaine third legislations are enforced by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. If a health emergency exists, the Governor in Council can prohibit importation of anything that it deems necessary under the Quarantine Act.
Under the Quarantine Actall travellers must submit to screening and if they believe they might have come into contact with communicable diseases or vectorsthey must disclose their whereabouts to a Border Services Officer. If the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the traveller is or might have been infected with a communicable disease or refused to provide answers, a quarantine officer QO must be called and the person is to be isolated.
If a Quarantaine refuses to be isolated, any peace officer may arrest without warrant. Under the Health of Animals Act and Plant Protection Actinspectors can prohibit access to an infected area, dispose or treat any infected or suspected to be infected animals or plants.
Chapa health officer may seize articles they believe to be infectious or containing infectious agents. All travellers, if requested, must submit themselves to a health officer. Failure to do so is against the law and is subject to arrest and prosecution. The law allows for a health officer who have reasonable grounds to detain, isolate, quarantine anyone or anything believed to be infected and to restrict any articles from leaving a designated quarantine area.
This power also extends to land, sea or air crossings. Under the same ordinance, any police officer, health officer, member of the Civil Aid Serviceor member of the Auxiliary Medical Service can arrest a person who obstructs or escapes from detention. To reduce the risk of introducing rabies from continental Europe, the United Kingdom used to require that dogs, and most other animals introduced to the country, spend six months in quarantine at an HM Customs and Excise pound; this policy was abolished in in favour of a scheme generally known as Pet Passportswhere animals can avoid quarantine if they have documentation Quarantaine they are up to date on their appropriate vaccinations.
The plague had disappeared from England for more than thirty years before the practice of quarantine against it was definitely established by the Quarantine Act 9 Ann. The second act of was due to the prevalence of plague at Marseille and other places in Provence, France. It was renewed in after a new outbreak in continental Europeand again indue to an epidemic in Messina. In a rigorous quarantine clause was introduced into an act regulating trade with the Levantand various arbitrary orders were issued during the next twenty years to meet the supposed danger of infection from the Baltic states.
Although no plague cases ever came to England during that period, the restrictions on traffic became more stringent, and in a very strict Quarantine Act was passed, with provisions affecting cargoes in particular.
The act was revised in andand in —24 an elaborate inquiry was followed by an act making quarantine only at discretion of the privy councilwhich recognised yellow fever or other highly infectious diseases as calling for quarantine, along with plague. The threat of cholera in was the last occasion in England of the use of quarantine restrictions.
Cholera affected every country in Europe despite all efforts to keep it out. When cholera returned to England inand —66, no attempt was made to seal the ports. In the privy council ordered all arrivals with a clean bill of health from the Black Sea and the Levant to be admitted, provided there had been no case of plague during the voyage, and afterwards the practice of quarantine was discontinued. After the passing of the first Quarantine Act the protective practices in England were haphazard and arbitrary.
In two vessels carrying cotton goods from Cyprus, then affected by the plague, were ordered to be burned with their cargoes, the owners receiving an indemnity. By the clause in the Levant Trade Act ofships arriving in the United Kingdom with a "foul bill" i. Since Stangate Creek on the Medway had been the quarantine station but it was available only for vessels with clean bills of health.
In lazarets in the form of floating hulks were established in England for the first time, the cleansing of cargo particularly by exposure to dews having been done previously on the ship's deck. No medical inspections were conducted, but control was the responsibility of the Officers of Royal Customs and quarantine.
Inwhen plague was in Poland, even vessels with grain from the Baltic had to spend forty days in quarantine, and unpack and air their cargoes, but due to complaints mainly from Edinburgh and Leith, an exception was made for grain after that date. About an order of the council required every ship liable to quarantine to hoist a yellow flag in the daytime and show a light at the main topmast head at night, in case of meeting any vessel at sea, or upon arriving within four leagues of the coast of Great Britain or Ireland.
Afterships from plague-affected countries or with foul bills were permitted to complete their quarantine in the Medway instead of at a Mediterranean port on the way, and an extensive lazaret was built on Chetney Hill near Chatham although it was later demolished. The use of floating hulks as lazarets continued as before. In two ships with hides from Mogador in Morocco were ordered to be sunk with their cargoes at the Norethe owners receiving an indemnity.
Animal hides were suspected of harbouring infections, along with a long list of other items, and these had to be exposed on the ship's deck for twenty-one days or less six days for each instalment of the cargoand then transported to the lazaret, where they were opened and aired for another forty days. The whole detention of the vessel was from sixty to sixty-five days, including the time for reshipment of her cargo.
Pilots had to pass fifteen days on board a convalescent ship. From onwards the quarantine establishments in the United Kingdom were gradually reduced, while the last vestige of the British quarantine law was removed by the Public Health Act ofwhich repealed the Quarantine Act of with dependent clauses of other actsand transferred from the privy council to the Local Government Board the powers to deal with ships arriving infected with yellow fever or plague.
The powers to deal with cholera ships had been already transferred by the Public Health Act British regulations of 9 November applied to yellow feverplague and cholera. Officers of the Customs, as well as of Royal Coast Guard and the Board of Trade for signallingwere empowered to take the initial steps.
They certified in writing the master of a supposedly infected ship, and detained the vessel provisionally for not more than twelve hours, giving notice meanwhile to the port sanitary authority.
The medical officer of the port boarded the ship and examined every person in it. Every person found infected was taken to a hospital and quarantined under the orders of the medical officer, and the vessel remained under his orders.
Every person suspected could be detained on board for 48 hours or removed to the hospital for a similar period. All others were free to land upon giving the addresses of their destinations to be sent to the respective local authorities, so that the dispersed passengers and crew could be kept individually under observation for a few days.
The ship was then disinfected, dead bodies buried at sea, infected clothing, bedding, etc. Mail was subject to no detention. A stricken ship within 3 miles of the shore had to fly a yellow and black flag at the main mast from sunrise to sunset. In the United States, authority to quarantine people with infectious diseases is split between the state and federal governments.
States and tribal governments recognised by the federal government  have primary authority to quarantine people within their boundaries. Federal jurisdiction only applies to people moving across state or national borders, or people on federal property. Communicable diseases for which apprehension, detention, or conditional release of people are authorised must be specified in Executive Orders of the President.
As ofthese included one land crossing in El Paso, Texas and 19 international airports. These facilities are fairly small; each one is operated by a few staff members and capable of accommodating 1—2 travellers for a short observation period.
The United States puts immediate quarantines on imported products if a contagious disease is identified and can be traced back to a certain shipment or product. All imports will also be quarantined if the disease appears in other countries. Quarantine law began in Colonial America inwhen in an attempt to curb an outbreak of smallpoxthe city of New York established a quarantine.
In the s, the city built a quarantine station on the Bedloe's Island. The Pest House in Concord, Massachusetts was used as early as to quarantine those suffering from cholera, tuberculosis and smallpox. In addition, New York City Mayor Walter Browne established a quarantine against all peoples and products of Europe and Asia, which prohibited ships from approaching closer than yards to the city, and all vehicles were ordered to stop 1.
The Immigrant Inspection Station on Ellis Islandbuilt inis often mistakenly assumed to have been a quarantine station, however its marine Quarantaine Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital only qualified as a contagious disease facility to handle less virulent diseases like measles, trachoma and less advanced stages of tuberculosis and diphtheria; those afflicted with smallpox, yellow fever, cholera, leprosy or typhoid fever, could neither be received nor treated there. Mary Mallon was quarantined in under the Greater New York Charter, Sections —,  which permitted the New York City Board of Health to "remove to a proper place…any person sick with any contagious, pestilential or infectious disease.
During the flu pandemicpeople were also quarantined. Most commonly suspect cases of infectious diseases are requested to voluntarily quarantine themselves, and Federal and local quarantine statutes only have been uncommonly invoked since then, including for a suspected smallpox case in The Public Health Service Act "to apprehend, detain, and examine certain infected persons who are peculiarly likely to cause the interstate spread of disease" clearly established the federal government 's quarantine authority for the first time.
It gave the United States Public Health Service responsibility for preventing the introduction, transmission and spread of communicable diseases from foreign countries into the United States, and expanded quarantine authority to include incoming aircraft.
No federal quarantine orders were issued from untilas American citizens were evacuated from China during the COVID pandemic. Eyam was a village in Britain that imposed protective sequestration on itself to stop the spread of the bubonic plague in The plague ran its course over 14 months and one account states that it killed at least villagers. Forty-six people had died of typhoid during the voyage, including 36 convicts, and the ship was placed in quarantine on the North Shore.
Convicts were landed, and a camp was established in the immediate vicinity of what is now Jeffrey Street in Kirribilli. This was the first site in Australia to be used for quarantine purposes. Mary Mallon was a cook who was found to be a carrier of Salmonella enterica subsp. At least 53 cases of the infection were traced to her, and three deaths. Subsequently she spent a further 23 years in isolation prior to her death in The presence of the bacteria in her gallbladder was confirmed on autopsy.
During the flu pandemicthe then Governor of American SamoaJohn Martin Poyerimposed a full quarantine of the islands from all incoming ships, successfully achieving zero deaths within the territory. Induring World War IIBritish forces tested out their biological weapons program on Gruinard Island and infected it with anthrax. Subsequently a quarantine order was placed on the island. The quarantine was lifted in when the island was declared safe, and a flock of sheep was released onto the island.
Between 24 July and 9 Februarythe astronauts of Apollo 11Apollo 12and Apollo 14were quarantined in each case for a total of 21 days after returning to Earth, initially where they were recovered and then being transferred to the Lunar Receiving Laboratoryto prevent possible interplanetary contamination by microorganisms from the Moon. All lunar samples were also held in the biosecure environment of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory for initial assay.
In Nederland kunnen bij vaststelling van bepaalde besmettelijke ziekten bijvoorbeeld poliodifterieQuarantaine, SARSpokkenetc. Deze maatregelen worden aan de betrokkene bekendgemaakt door middel van een bestuursrechtelijke beschikking.
Indien de betrokkene medewerking weigert kan gebruikgemaakt worden van bestuursdwang. De betrokkene krijgt de beschikking over een raadsman en de quarantaine kan rechterlijk worden getoetst. Zodra het gevaar is opgeheven of op minder ingrijpende wijze kan worden afgewend, moet de burgemeester de maatregel opheffen.
Iemand gaat in quarantaine tot de incubatietijd is verlopen. Dit is de maximale tijd tussen het moment van mogelijke besmetting en het moment dat mensen ziekteverschijnselen krijgen. Als mensen in die periode niet ziek zijn geworden, wordt de quarantaine opgeheven.
Een persoon die in isolatie gehouden wordt, is ziek of er is een mogelijkheid dat die ziek is. Mensen kunnen thuis in isolatie blijven of in een ziekenhuis in isolatie behandeld worden. Dat hangt af van de ernst van de ziekteverschijnselen en de besmettelijkheid van de ziekte. Quarantaineorganismen zijn schadelijke organismen die in een bepaald land nog niet voorkomen.
Ook is er een lijst opgesteld met de namen van de quarantaineorganismen. Op de quarantainelijst van de EU staan ongeveer organismen. Voor deze organismen geldt een nultolerantie. De Plantenziektenkundige Dienst controleert samen met de douane hierop. Enkele maatregelen ter voorkoming van import zijn dat bij de invoer van goederen de containers gegast worden en vliegtuigen voordat ze landen in de lucht uitwendig ontsmet.
Daarnaast zijn er maatregelen die genomen moeten worden in het geval dat een quarantaineorganisme gevonden wordt. In sommige gevallen wordt de strijd verloren, zoals bij de coloradokever en wordt deze niet meer als een quarantaineorganisme beschouwd.
Quarantaine is ook een term die wordt gebruikt voor het blokkeren van havens of gehele landen, zoals de marineblokkade van Cuba tijdens de Cuba-crisis in de jaren Ook wordt zij gebruikt voor het isoleren van computers in een eigen netwerksegment, meestal omdat zo'n computer vreemde gedragingen vertoont op het computernetwerkof niet voldoet aan bepaalde toegangs- of gebruikscriteria.
Deze isolatie kan betekenen dat er geen, of zeer beperkte toegang tot andere computers in het computernetwerk of Internet gegeven wordt. Quarantainestelling voordat een computer het computernetwerk op mag, wordt aangeduid met de term pre-admission control. Pre-admission control wordt meestal gekoppeld aan een aantal eisen waaraan voldaan moet worden voordat toegang verleend wordt. Een deel van de beschikbare pre-admission control oplossingen vereisen software op de clientterwijl andere oplossingen client -onafhankelijk opereren.
Quarantainestelling nadat een computer al op een computernetwerk toegelaten was, wordt aangeduid met de term post-admission control. Post-admission control wordt meestal gekoppeld aan bepaalde gebruiksvoorwaarden van het computernetwerk.
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