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There is often the widest possible difference in the facility of making reciprocal crosses. Such cases are highly important, for they prove that the capacity in any two species to cross is often completely independ- ent of their systematic affinity, that is of any differ- ence in their structure or constitution, excepting in CHAP.
The diversity of the result in reciprocal crosses between the same two species was long ago observed by Kb'lreuter. To give an instance: Mirabilis jalapa can easily be fertilised by the pollen of M. Several other equally striking cases could be given. Thuret has observed the same fact with certain sea-weeds or Fuci. Gartner, moreover, found that this difference of facility, in making recipro- cal crosses is extremely common in a lesser degree.
He has observed it even between closely related forms as Matthiola annua and gilabra which many botanists rank only as varieties. It is also a remarkable fact, that hybrids raised from reciprocal crosses, though of course compounded of the very same two species, the one spe- cies having first been used as the father and then as the mother, though -they rarely differ in external char- acters, yet generally differ in fertility in a small, and oc- casionally in a high degree.
Several other singular rules could be given from Giirtner: for instance, some species have a remarkable power of crossing with other species; other species of the same genus have a remarkable power of impressing their likeness on their hybrid offspring; but these two powers do not at all necessarily go together. There are certain hybrids which, instead of having, as is usual, an intermediate character between their two parents, always closely resemble one of them; and such hybrids, though externally so like one of their pure parent- species, are with rare exceptions extremely sterile.
These facts show how completely the fertility of a hybrid may be independent of its external resemblance to either pure parent. Considering the several rules now given, which govern the fertility of first crosses and of hybrids, we see that when forms, which must be considered as good and distinct species, are united, their fertility graduates from zero to perfect fertility, or even to fertility under certain conditions in excess; that their fertility, besides being eminently susceptible to favourable and unfa- vourable conditions, is innately variable; that it is by no means always the same in degree in the first cross and in the hybrids produced from this cross; that the fertility of hybrids is not related to the degree in which they resemble in external appearance either parent; and lastly, that the facility of making a first cross between any two species is not always governed by their syste- matic affinity or degree of resemblance to each other.
This latter statement is clearly proved by the differ- ence in the result of reciprocal crosses between the same two species, for, according as the one species or the other is used as the father or the mother, there is gen- erally soine difference, and occasionally the widest pos- sible difference, in the facility of effecting an union.
The hybrids, moreover, produced from reciprocal crosses often differ in fertility. Now do these complex and singular rules indicate CHAP. I think not. For why should the sterility be so extremely different in degree, when various species are crossed, all of which we must suppose it would be equally im- portant to keep from blending together?
Why should the degree of sterility be innately variable in the in- dividuals of the same species? Why should some spe- cies cross with facility, and yet produce very sterile hybrids; and other species cross with extreme difficulty, and yet produce fairly fertile hybrids?
Why should there often be so great a difference in the result of a re- ciprocal cross between the same two species? Why, it may even be asked, has the production of hybrids been permitted? To grant to species the special power of producing hybrids, and then to stop their further propagation by different degrees of sterility, not strictly related to the facility of the first union between their parents, seems a strange arrangement.
The foregoing rules and facts, on the other hand, appear to me clearly to indicate that the sterility both of first crosses and of hybrids is simply incidental or dependent on unknown differences in their reproductive systems; the differences being of so peculiar and lim- ited a nature, that, in reciprocal crosses between the same two species, the male sexual element of the one will often freely act on the female sexual element of the other, but not in a reversed direction.
It will be ad- visable to explain a little more fully by an example what I mean by sterility being incidental on other differences, and not a specially endowed quality. Great di- versity in the size of two plants, one being woody and the other herbaceous, one being evergreen and the other deciduous, and adaptation to widely different climates, do not always prevent the two grafting together. As in hybridisation, so with grafting, the capacity is limited by systematic affinity, for no one has been able to graft together trees belonging to quite distinct families; and, on the other hand, closely allied species, and varieties of the same species, can usually, but not invariably, be grafted with ease.
But this capacity, as in hybridisation, is by no means absolutely governed by systematic affinity. Although many distinct genera within the same family have been grafted together, in other cases species of the same genus will not take on each other. The pear can be grafted far more readily on the quince, which is ranked as a distinct genus, than on the ap- ple, which is a member of the same genus.
Even dif- ferent varieties of the pear take with different de- grees of facility on the quince; so do different varie- ties of the apricot and peach on certain varieties of the plum. As Gartner found that there was sometimes an innate difference in different individuals of the same two species in crossing; so Sageret believes this to be the case with different individuals of the same two spe- CHAP.
As in reciprocal crosses, the facility of effecting an union is often very far from equal, so it sometimes is in grafting; the common goose- berry, for instance, cannot be grafted on the current, whereas the current will take, though with difficulty, on the gooseberry. We have seen that the sterility of hybrids, which have their reproductive organs in an imperfect con- dition, is a different case from the difficulty of uniting two pure species, which have their reproductive organs perfect; yet these two distinct classes of cases run to a large extent parallel.
Something analogous occurs in grafting; for Thouin found that three species of Robinia, which seeded freely on their own roots, and which could be grafted with no great difficulty on a fourth species, when thus grafted were rendered barren.
On the other hand, certain species of Sorbus, when grafted on other species yielded twice as much fruit as when on their own roots. We thus see, that, although there is a clear and great difference between the mere adhesion of grafted stocks, and the union of the male and female elements in the act of reproduction, yet that there is a rude degree of parallelism in the results of grafting and of crossing dis- tinct species.
These differences in both cases, follow to a certain extent, as might have been expected, systematic affinity, by which term every kind of resem- blance and dissimilarity between organic beings is at- tempted to be expressed. The facts by no means seem to indicate that the greater or lesser difficulty of either grafting or crossing various species has been a special endowment; although in the case of crossing, the diffi- culty is as important for the endurance and stability of specific forms, as in the case of grafting it is unimpor- tant for their welfare.
Origin and Causes of the Sterility of first Crosses and of Hybrids. At one time it appeared to me probable, as it has to others, that the sterility of first crosses and of hybrids might have been slowly acquired through the natural selection of slightly lessened degrees of fertility, which, like any other variation, spontaneously appeared in cer- tain individuals of one variety when crossed with those of another variety, Struggle For Life - Benny Soebardja - The Lizard Years (CD).
For it would clearly be advantage- ous to two varieties or incipient species, if they could be kept from blending, on the same principle that, when man is selecting at the same time two varieties, it is necessary that he should keep them separate.
In the first place, it may be remarked that species inhabiting distinct regions are often sterile when crossed; now it could clearly have been of no advantage to such sepa- rated species to have been rendered mutually sterile, and consequently this could not have been effected through natural selection; but it may perhaps be argued, CHAP. In the second place, it is almost as much opposed to the theory of natural selection as to that of special creation, that in reciprocal crosses the male element of one form should have been rendered utterly impotent on a second form, whilst at the same time the male element of this second form is enabled freely to fertilise the first form; for this peculiar state of the reproductive system could hardly have been ad- vantageous to either species.
In considering the probability of natural selection having come into action, in rendering species mutually sterile, the greatest difficulty will be found to lie in the existence of many graduated steps from slightly lessened fertility to absolute sterility.
It may be admitted that it would profit an incipient species, if it were rendered in some slight degree sterile when crossed with its parent form or with some other variety; for thus fewer bastardised and deteriorated offspring would be pro- duced to commingle their blood with the new species in process of formation.
But he who will take the trouble to reflect on the steps by which this first degree of sterility could be increased through natural selection to that high degree which is common with so many species, and which is universal with species which have been differentiated to a generic or family rank, will find the subject extraordinarily complex.
After mature reflection it seems to me that this could not have been effected through natural selection. Yet an advance of this kind, if the theory of natural selection be brought to bear, must have incessantly occurred with many species, for a multitude are mutually quite barren.
With sterile neuter insects we have reason to believe that modifica- tions in their structure and fertility have been slowly accumulated by natural selection, from an advantage having been thus indirectly given to the community to which they belonged over other communities of the same species; but an individual animal not belonging to a so- cial community, if rendered slightly sterile when crossed with some other variety, would not thus itself gain any advantage or indirectly give any advantage to the other individuals of the same variety, thus leading to their preservation.
But it would be superfluous to discuss this question in detail; for with plants we have conclusive evidence that the sterility of crossed species must be due to some principle, quite independent of natural selection. Both Gartner and Kolreuter have proved that in genera in- cluding numerous species, a series can be formed from species which when crossed yield fewer and fewer seeds, to species which never produce a single seed, but yet are affected by the pollen of certain other species, for the germen swells.
It is here manifestly impossible to select the more sterile individuals, which have already ceased to yield seeds; so that this acme of sterility, when the germen alone is affected, cannot have been gained through selection; and from the laws governing the various grades of sterility being so uniform through- out the animal and vegetable kingdoms, we may infer CHAP. In the case of first crosses, the greater or less difficulty in effecting an union and in obtaining offspring apparently depends on several distinct causes.
There must sometimes be a physical impossibility in the male element reaching the ovule, as would be the case with a plant having a pistil too long for the pollen-tubes to reach the ovarium. It has also been observed that when the pollen of one spe- cies is placed on the stigma of a distantly allied species, though the pollen-tubes protrude, they do not penetrate the stigmatic surface.
Again, the male element may reach the female element but be incapable of causing an embryo to be developed, as seems to have been the case with some of Thuret's experiments on Fuci. No explanation can be given of these facts, any more than why certain trees cannot be grafted on others. Lastly, an embryo may be developed, and then perish at an early period.
This latter alternative has not been sufficiently attended to; but I believe, from observations communi- cated to me by Mr. Hewitt, who has had great experience in hybridising pheasants and fowls, that the early death of the embryo is a very frequent cause of sterility in first crosses.
Of the chickens which were born, more than four-fifths died within the first few days, or at latest weeks, " with- out any obvious cause, apparently from mere inability to liv. With plants, hybridised embryos prob- ably often perish in a like manner; at least it is known that hybrids raised from very distinct species are some- times weak and dwarfed, and perish at an early age; of which fact Max Wichura has recently given some striking cases with hybrid willows.
It may be here worth noticing that in some cases of parthenogenesis, the embryos within the eggs of silk moths which had not been fertilised, pass through their early stages of development and then perish like the embryos pro- duced by a cross between distinct species. Until becom- ing acquainted with these facts, I was unwilling to be- lieve in the frequent early death of hybrid embryos; for hybrids, when once born, are generally healthy and long- lived, as we see in the case of the common mule.
Hy- brids, however, are differently circumstanced before and after birth: when born and living in a country where their two parents live, they are generally placed under suitable conditions of life. But a hybrid par- takes of only half of the nature and constitution of its mother; it may therefore before birth, as long as it is nourished within its mother's womb, or within the egg or seed produced by the mother, be exposed to condi- tions in some degree unsuitable, and consequently be liable to perish at an early period; more especially as all very young beings are eminently sensitive to injurious or unnatural conditions of life.
But after all, the cause CHAP. In regard to the sterility of hybrids, in which the sexual elements are imperfectly developed, the case is somewhat different. I have more than once alluded to a large body of facts showing that, when animals and plants are removed from their natural conditions, they are extremely liable to have their reproductive systems seriously affected.
This, in fact, Struggle For Life - Benny Soebardja - The Lizard Years (CD) the great bar to the domestication of animals. Between the sterility thus superinduced and that of hybrids, there are many points of similarity.
In both cases the sterility is inde- pendent of general health, and is often accompanied by excess of size or great luxuriance. In both cases the sterility occurs in various degrees; in both, the male element is the most liable to be affected; but some- times the female more than the male.
In both, the tendency goes to a certain extent with systematic affin- ity, for whole groups of animals and plants are rendered impotent by the same unnatural conditions; and whole groups of species tend to produce sterile hybrids. On the other hand, one species in a group will sometimes resist great changes of conditions with unimpaired fer- tility; and certain species in a group will produce un- usually fertile hybrids.
No one can tell, till he tries, whether any particular animal will breed under confine- ment, or any exotic plant seed freely under culture; nor can he tell till he tries, whether any two species of a genus will produce more or less sterile hybrids. So it is with hybrids, for their offspring in successive generations are eminently liable to vary, as every experimentalist has observed. Thus we see that when organic beings are placed under new and unnatural conditions, and when hybrids are produced by the unnatural crossing of two species, the reproductive system, independently of the general state of health, is affected in a very similar manner.
In the one case, the conditions of life have been dis- turbed, though often in so slight a degree as to be in- appreciable by us; in the other case, or that of hybrids, the external conditions have remained the same, but the organisation has been disturbed by two distinct structures and constitutions, including of course the reproductive systems, having been blended into one. For it is scarcely possible that two organisations should be compounded into one, without some disturbance occurring in the development, or periodical action, or mutual relations of the different parts and organs one to another or to the conditions of life.
When hybrids are able to breed inter se, they transmit to their off- spring from generation to generation the same com- pounded organisation, and hence we need not be sur- prised that their sterility, though in some degree varia- ble, does not diminish; it is even apt to increase, this being generally the result, as before explained, of too close interbreeding. The above view of the sterility of hybrids being caused by two constitutions being com- pounded into one has been strongly maintained by Max Wichura.
Nor do I pretend that the fore- going remarks go to the root of the matter; no explana- tion is offered why an organism, when placed under un- natural conditions, is rendered sterile.
All that I have attempted to show is, that in two cases, in some respects allied, sterility is the common result, in the one case from the conditions of life having been disturbed, in the other case from the organisation having been dis- turbed by two organisations being compounded into one. A similar parallelism holds good with an allied yet very different class of facts. It is an old and almost universal belief founded on a considerable body of evi- dence, which I have elsewhere given, that slight changes in the conditions of life are beneficial to all living things.
During the con- valescence of animals, great benefit is derived from al- most any change in their habits of life. Again, both with plants and animals, there is the clearest evidence that a cross between individuals of the same species, which differ to a certain extent, gives vigour and fer- tility to the offspring; and that close interbreeding continued during several generations between the near- est relations, if these be kept under the same conditions of life, almost always leads to decreased size, weakness, or sterility.
Hence it seems that, on the one hand, slight changes in the conditions of life benefit all organic be- ings, and on the other hand, that slight crosses, that is crosses between the males and females of the same spe- cies, which have been subjected to slightly different conditions, or which have slightly varied, give vigour and fertility to the offspring. But, as we have seen, or- ganic beings long habituated to certain uniform condi- tions under a state of nature, when subjected, as under confinement, to a considerable change in their condi- tions, very frequently are rendered more or less sterile; and we know that a cross between two forms, that have become widely or specifically different, produce hybrids which are almost always in some degree sterile.
I am fully persuaded that this double parallelism is by no means an accident or an illusion. He who is able to explain why the elephant and a multitude of other animals are incapable of breeding when kept under only partial confinement in their native country, will be able to explain the primary cause of hybrids being so gen- erally sterile.
He will at the same time be able to ex- plain how it is that the races of some of our domesticated animals, which have often been subjected to new and not uniform conditions, are quite fertile together, al- though they are descended from distinct species, which would probably have been sterile if aboriginally crossed. The above two parallel series of facts seem to be con- nected together by some common but unknown bond, which is essentially related to the principle of life; this principle, according to Mr.
Herbert Spencer, being that life depends on, or consists in, the incessant action and reaction of various forces, which, as throughout nature, are always tending towards an equilibrium; and when CHAP.
Reciprocal Dimorphism and Trimorphism. This subject may be here briefly discussed, and will be found to throw some light on hybridism. Several plants belonging to distinct orders present two forms, which exist in about equal numbers and which differ in no respect except in their reproductive organs; one form having a long pistil with short stamens, the other a short pistil with long stamens; the two having dif- ferently sized pollen-grains.
With trimorphic plants there are three forms likewise differing in the lengths of their pistils and stamens, in the size and colour of the pollen-grains, and in some other respects; and as in each of the three forms there are two sets of stamens, the three forms possess altogether six sets of stamens and three kinds of pistils.
These organs are so pro- portioned in length to each other, that half the sta- mens in two of the forms stand on Struggle For Life - Benny Soebardja - The Lizard Years (CD) level with the stigma of the third form. Now I have shown, and the result has been confirmed by other observers, that, in order to obtain full fertility with these plants, it is necessary that the stigma of the one form should be fertilised by pollen taken from the stamens of cor- responding height in another form.
So that with di- morphic species two unions, which may be called legiti- mate, are fully fertile; and two, which may be called illegitimate, are more or less infertile. With trimor- phic species six unions are legitimate, or fully fer- tile, and twelve are illegitimate, or more or less infer- tile. The infertility which may be observed in various dimorphic and trimorphic plants, when they are il- legitimately fertilised, that is by pollen taken from stamens not corresponding in height with the pistil, differs much in degree, up to absolute and utter steril- ity; just in the same manner as occurs in crossing dis- tinct species.
As the degree of sterility in the latter case depends in an eminent degree on the conditions of life being more or less favourable, so I have found it with illegitimate unions. It is well known that if pollen of a distinct species be placed on the stigma of a flower, and its own pollen be afterwards, even after a considerable interval of time, placed on the same stigma, its action is so strongly prepotent that it generally anni- hilates the effect of theforeign pollen; so it is with the pollen of the several forms of the same species, for legitimate pollen is strongly prepotent over illegitimate pollen, when both are placed on the same stigma.
I ascertained this by fertilising several flowers, first il- legitimately, and twenty-four hours afterwards legiti- mately with the pollen taken from a peculiarly coloured variety, and all the seedlings were similarly coloured; this shows that the legitimate pollen, though applied twenty-four hours subsequently, had wholly destroyed or prevented the action of the previously applied il- legitimate pollen.
Again, as in making reciprocal crosses between the same two species, there is occasion- ally a great difference in the result, so the same thing occurs with trimorphic plants; for instance, the mid- styled form of Lythrum salicaria was illegitimately fer- tilised with the greatest ease by pollen from the longer stamens of the short-styled form, and yielded many seeds; but the latter form did not yield a single seed CHAP.
In all these respects, and in others which might be added, the forms of the same undoubted species when illegitimately united behave in exactly the same manner as do two distinct species when crossed.
This led me carefully to observe during four years many seedlings, raised from several illegitimate unions. The chief re- sult is that these illegitimate plants, as they may be called, are not fully fertile.
It is possible to raise from dimorphic species, both long-styled and short-styled illegitimate plants, and from trimorphic plants all three illegitimate forms. These can then be properly united in a legitimate manner.
When this is done, there is no apparent reason why they should not yield as many seeds as did their parents when legitimately fertilised. But such is not the case. They are all infertile, in various degrees; some being so utterly and incurably sterile that they did not yield during four seasons a single seed or even seed-capsule. The sterility of these illegitimate plants, when united with each other in a legitimate manner, may be strictly compared with that of hybrids when crossed inter se.
If, on the other hand, a hybrid is crossed with either pure parent-species, the sterility is usually much lessened: and so it is when an illegitimate plant is fertilised by a legitimate plant. In the same manner as the sterility of hybrids does not always run parallel with the difficulty of making the first cross between the two parent-species, so the sterility of certain illegitimate plants was unusually great, whilst the sterility of the union from which they were derived was by no means great.
Lastly, many hybrids are profuse and persistent flowerers, whilst other and more sterile hybrids pro- duce few flowers, and are weak, miserable dwarfs; exactly similar cases occur with the illegitimate off- spring of various dimorphic and trimorphic plants. Altogether there is the closest identity in character and behaviour between illegitimate plants and hybrids. It is hardly an exaggeration to maintain that illegitimate plants are hybrids, produced within the limits of the same species by the improper union of certain forms, whilst ordinary hybrids are produced from an improper union between so-called distinct species.
We have also already seen that there is the closest similarity in all re- spects between first illegitimate unions and first crosses between distinct species. This will perhaps be made more fully apparent by an illustration; we may suppose that a botanist found two well-marked varieties and such occur of the long-styled form of the trimorphic Lythrum salicaria, and that he determined to try by crossing whether they were specifically distinct.
He would find that they yielded only about one-fifth of the proper number of seeds, and that they behaved in all the other above specified respects as if they had been two distinct species.
But to make the case sure, he would raise plants from his supposed hybridised seed, and he would find that the seedlings were miserably dwarfed and utterly sterile, and that they behaved in all other respects like ordinary hybrids. He might then main- tain that he had actually proved, in accordance with the common view, that his two varieties were as good and as distinct species as any in the world; but he would be completely mistaken.
For we must remember that it is the union of the sexual elements of individuals of the same form, for instance, of two long- styled forms, which results in sterility; whilst it is the union of the sexual elements proper to two distinct forms which is fertile. Hence the case appears at first sight exactly the reverse of what occurs, in the ordinary unions of the individuals of the same species and with crosses between distinct species.
It is, however, doubt- ful whether this is really so; but I will not enlarge on this obscure subject. We may, however, infer as probable from the con- sideration of dimorphic and trimorphic plants, that the sterility of distinct species when crossed and of their hybrid progeny, depends exclusively on the nature of their sexual elements, and not on any difference in their structure or general constitution. That excellent observer, Gart- ner, likewise concluded that species when crossed are sterile owing to differences confined to their reproduc- tive systems.
Fertility of Varieties when Crossed, and of their Mongrel Offspring, not universal. It may be urged, as an overwhelming argument, that there must be some essential distinction between species and varieties, inasmuch as the latter, however much they may differ from each other in external appearance, cross with perfect facility, and yield perfectly fertile offspring.
With some exceptions, presently to be given, I fully admit that this is the rule. But the sub- ject is surrounded by difficulties, for, looking to varie- ties produced under nature, if two forms hitherto re- puted to be varieties be found in any degree sterile to- gether, they are at once ranked by most naturalists as species. For instance, the blue and red pimpernel, which are considered by most botanists as varieties, are said by Gartner to be quite sterile when crossed, and he subsequently ranks them as undoubted species.
If we thus argue in a circle, the fertility of all varieties produced under nature will assuredly have to be granted. If we turn to varieties, produced, or supposed to have been produced, under domestication, we are still in- volved in some doubt.
For when it is stated, for in- stance, that certain South American indigenous domes- tic dogs do not Struggle For Life - Benny Soebardja - The Lizard Years (CD) unite with European dogs, the explanation which will occur to every one, and probably CHAP. Nevertheless the perfect fertil- ity of so many domestic races, differing widely from each other in appearance, for instance those of the pigeon, or of the cabbage, is a remarkable fact; more es- pecially when we reflect how many species there are, which, though resembling each other most closely, are utterly sterile when intercrossed.
Several considera- tions, however, render the fertility of domestic varieties less remarkable. In the first place, it may be observed that the amount of external difference between two species is no sure guide to their degree of mutual steril- ity, so that similar differences in the case of varieties would be no sure guide. It is certain that with species the cause lies exclusively in differences in their sexual constitution.
Now the varying conditions to which domesticated animals and cultivated plants have been subjected, have had so little tendency towards modify- ing the reproductive system in a manner leading to mutual sterility, that we have good grounds for admit- ting the directly opposite doctrine of Pallas, namely, that such conditions generally eliminate this tendency; so that the domesticated descendants of species, which in their natural state probably would have been in some degree sterile when crossed, become perfectly fer- tile together.
With plants, so far is cultivation from giving a tendency towards sterility between distinct species, that in several well-authenticated cases already alluded to, certain plants have been affected in an op- posite manner, for they have become self-impotent whilst still retaining the capacity of fertilising, and being fertilised by, other species. Thus, as I believe, we can understand why with domesticated animals varieties have not been produced which are mutually sterile; and why with plants only a few such cases, immediately to be given, have been observed.
The real difficulty in our present subject is not, as it appears to me, why domestic varieties have not become mutually infertile when crossed, but why this has so generally occurred with natural varieties, as soon as they have been permanently modified in a sufficient degree to take rank as species. We are far from precisely knowing the cause; nor is this surprising, seeing how profoundly ignorant we are in regard to the normal and abnormal action of the reproductive system.
But we can see that species, owing to their struggle for ex- istence with numerous competitors, will have been ex- posed during long periods of time to more uniform conditions, than have domestic varieties; and this may well make a wide difference in the result.
For we know how commonly wild animals and plants, when taken from their natural conditions and subjected to captivity, are rendered sterile; and the reproductive functions of organic beings which have always lived under natural conditions' would probably in like man- ner be eminently sensitive to the influence of an un- natural cross. Domesticated productions, on the other hand, which, as shown by the mere fact of their domesti- cation, were not originally highly sensitive to changes CHAP.
I have as yet spoken as if the varieties of the same species were invariably fertile when intercrossed. But it is impossible to resist the evidence of the existence of a certain amount of sterility in the few following cases, which I will briefly abstract.
The evidence is at least as good as that from which we believe in the sterility of a multitude of species. The evidence is, also, derived from hostile witnesses, who in all other cases consider fertility and sterility as safe criterions of specific distinction. Gartner kept during several years a dwarf kind of maize with yellow seeds, and a tall variety with red seeds growing near each other in his garden; and although these plants have separated sexes, they never naturally crossed.
He then fertilised thirteen flowers of the one kind with pollen of the other; but only a single head produced any seed, and this one head produced only five grains. We work hard to protect your security and privacy. Our payment security system encrypts your information during transmission.
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Sold by: waterloorecords. Have one to sell? Sell on Amazon. Image Unavailable Image not available for Color:. The Lizard Years. See all 4 formats and editions Hide other formats and editions Price. Audio CD, May 29, "Please retry". Register a free business account. Track Listings Disc: 1. Come Closer. In Sunny Day. Candle Light. Loosing Time. Same Sun. The Advantage of Music for Me. My Dear Suzanne.
Circle of Love. The End of the World. Some Day. I'm Still in Luv' with Ya'. Gut Rock. Young Widow. Wise World. Night Train. Woman of Desire. Talked About My Girl. Struggle for Life. Calls Himself a Rider. A Signal from Outer Space.
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There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Verified Purchase. Benny Soebardja - The Lizard Years - As a music lover with a wide taste I have crossed many different borders and paths, but boy was I shocked when i first heard the music of Soebardja.
Indonesian prog psych! Yeah baby! This 2 cd compilation basically covers 3 albums from to when Benny was in his real creative days. Thursday 20 February Friday 21 February Saturday 22 February Sunday 23 February Monday 24 February Tuesday 25 February Wednesday 26 February Thursday 27 February Friday 28 February Saturday 29 February Sunday 1 March Monday 2 March Tuesday 3 March Wednesday 4 March Thursday 5 March Friday 6 March Saturday 7 March Sunday 8 March Monday 9 March Tuesday 10 March Wednesday 11 March Thursday 12 March Friday 13 March Saturday 14 March Sunday 15 March Monday 16 March Tuesday 17 March Wednesday 18 March Thursday 19 March Friday 20 March Saturday 21 March Sunday 22 March Monday 23 March Tuesday 24 March Wednesday 25 March Thursday 26 March Friday 27 March Saturday 28 March Sunday 29 March Monday 30 March Tuesday 31 March Wednesday 1 April Thursday 2 April Friday 3 April Saturday 4 April Sunday 5 April Monday 6 April Tuesday 7 April Wednesday 8 April Thursday 9 April Friday 10 April Saturday 11 April Sunday 12 April Monday 13 April Tuesday 14 April Wednesday 15 April Thursday 16 April Friday 17 April Saturday 18 April Sunday 19 April Monday 20 April Tuesday 21 April Wednesday 22 April Thursday 23 April Friday 24 April Saturday 25 April Sunday 26 April Monday 27 April Tuesday 28 April Wednesday 29 April Thursday 30 April Friday 1 May Saturday 2 May Sunday 3 May
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