Skid Into The Turn (For Andrew Hill) - Pandelis Karayorgis / Nate McBride / Ken Vandermark - No Such Thing (CD) download full album zip cd mp3 vinyl flac
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Write a review Rate this item: 1 2 3 4 5. Preview this item Preview this item. Subjects Wildlife conservation -- North America.
Natural history -- North America. Natural history. View all subjects More like this Similar Items. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Be the first. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.
Wildlife conservation. North America. Linked Data More info about Linked Data. WorldCat is the world's largest library catalog, helping you find library materials online. Remember me on this computer. Cancel Forgot your password? W Phillip Keller. Print book : English View all editions and formats. Wildlife conservation -- North America. View all subjects. Similar Items. Yet the wilderness backcountry is too rugged for him and the popular gathering places too urbanized.
To make wilderness areas more accessible, by installing roads there, would put the visitor in the wilderness without exposing him to it, and would also intrude upon others' opportunities to experience challenging wild areas. Places like Yosemite Valley, easily accessible and yet splendid in its scenery and resources, would be an ideal place for such a beginner if it were much less developed and less crowded.
The paradox is that an effective policy will not be advanced simply by establishing more wilderness areas, for no matter how much we enlarge the backcountry, and no matter how small the areas devoted to city-type development and motorized nature-loop drives, those latter places will remain the principal magnets for most park visitors. A related difficulty arises when management commingles the service function with the task of offering novel and challenging experiences.
A now-shelved plan to build a motorized tramway to the top of Guadalupe Peak in Guadalupe Mountain National Park in Texas illustrates the problem. Jutting out of the surrounding barren country, Guadalupe Peak provides a moderate walk of a few hours to a fine prospect. But the park has virtually no developed facilities and is little visited.
A few years ago, the National Park Service published a plan noting that many people want to experience the wilderness, but find it difficult or too time consuming. The plan therefore proposed the construction of a tramway to carry visitors to the top of the mountain so they could look down into a wilderness area. This, the plan noted, "will be truly a wilderness threshold experience.
Not everyone will seize the chance to experience wilderness, even in the modest dose that Guadalupe Park presents. The opportunity can and should be offered as a choice, to be accepted or rejected; but it should not be falsified or domesticated. If we want authentic choices, we will have to make some compromises, for we can't have places like Yosemite Valley both as an accessible place for a distinctive recreational experience and as a place to serve conventional tourist demands.
One possible compromise is to try fully to serve the quantitative demand for conventional recreation and to provide opportunities for all the different kinds of activities the public wants, but not to assure those opportunities in locations that have a special value for reflective recreation. To some extent, of course, we already follow such a policy in the national parks. In general, resorts, and activities like tennis, golf, and pool swimming are excluded from the parks.
So long as there is a reasonable opportunity somewhere to participate in all the various activities we want, and with a considerable degree of amenity and convenience, we can reserve critical areas in the parks from conventional tourism without destroying the chance for a conscious choice by the tourist.
To be sure this proposal is a compromise, and it does not meet the desires of the visitor who wants to play tennis or go to a nightclub in the shadows of Yosemite's magnificent scenery, who likes the crowds, or who wants to ride a motorcycle at high speed through a desert park.
The value of such an arrangement is that it forces us to separate in our minds contemplative from conventional service recreation. Such unbundling of differing wants clarifies the extent to which we are willing to subject ourselves to self-coercion.
It requires us to ask ourselves whether we are going to a park because it is a special, challenging, and unfamiliar place without ordinary comforts and services. It puts the symbolism of the parks before us, not as an abstract image, but as a decision with consequences. One practical difficulty with such an approach grows our of the spectacular increase in recreational use that we have been experiencing in recent years. The problem is not as intractable as it appears to be. Our ability to accommodate elsewhere demands that now press upon national park areas depends significantly on the importance assigned to reserving park areas.
An incident in the history of the Olympic National Park though dealing with commercial demand rather than recreation provides a revealing example of the relationship between the value we assign to parks and our ability to meet the range of demands that are made upon them. Olympic National Park in Washington was established largely because of its magnificent stands of Sitka spruce. The Olympic peninsula is also an important area for commercial timber harvesting. Timber companies had long been eager to log the land in the park, and there had been continual dispute over park boundaries.
These disputes were relatively quiescent when World War II broke out. It happened that Sitka spruce wood was peculiarly valuable for military airplane production and was in short supply. Pressures began to mount to permit logging which is generally prohibited in national parks in Olympic Park during the war and for the war effort. The War Production Board, whose job it was to assure adequate supplies of material, recommended that timber harvesting be permitted in the park.
This situation presented an agonizing dilemma for Park Service officials. They were extremely reluctant to see the park's most distinctive resource impaired. At the same time, both as a matter of conviction and prudence, the official position of the Park Service was one of determined support for the war effort.
The problem was made especially complex by two additional facts. One was a suspicion that the park's lumber might not be needed, and that, to a significant extent, the war effort was being used as a wedge by the local timber industry to get under cover of patriotic need what it had failed to get in peacetime. In addition, the Park Service had bitter memories of World War I, when considerable industrial intrusions had been made on the national parks, particularly for grazing.
The Park Service had the good fortune to be supported by a strong secretary of the interior, Harold Ickes. The virgin forests in the national parks should not be cut unless the trees are absolutely essential to the prosecution of the war, with no alternative, Skid Into The Turn (For Andrew Hill) - Pandelis Karayorgis / Nate McBride / Ken Vandermark - No Such Thing (CD) only as a last resort.
Critical necessity rather than convenience should be the governing reason for such sacrifice of an important part of our federal estate. The policy adopted did not end with a statement of principle, however. Indeed, that was just the beginning. Secretary Ickes himself corresponded with the head of the War Production Board to get a sense of the problem and to make clear the Interior Department's reluctance.
It turned out that there was Sitka spruce in both Alaska and Canada, but it had been classified as unavailable. The Alaska timber was remote, and it was doubted that a sufficient amount could be made available in a short time.
Canada had put an embargo on the export to the United States of high grade logs, including Sitka spruce, and Ickes suspected that they were holding back production. With its strong commitment to save the Olympic timber if possible, the Interior Department not only articulated the burden of showing "critical necessity" but set out to find the facts for itself and to suggest alternatives.
Park Service employees were dispatched to aircraft manufacturing plants to get a first-hand view of the problem, and to the Forest Service Products Laboratory to investigate alternatives to the use of Skid Into The Turn (For Andrew Hill) - Pandelis Karayorgis / Nate McBride / Ken Vandermark - No Such Thing (CD).
A proposal was developed for a program of special assistance to private companies logging nonparklands that were difficult to reach, including help in obtaining draft deferments for additional employees. With some inquiry and diplomacy, aircraft log production was increased in British Columbia, relieving the pressure on American forests. Ickes wrote to the War Production Board suggesting eight specific measures to relieve the Sitka spruce shortage without incursions on Olympic National Park.
By November ofat a congressional hearing convened to consider the problem, the War Production Board testified that it no longer believed logging of the park was necessary.
A change in aircraft lumber requirements had occurred, the Board stated, following discussions between them and the Interior Department. A decision had been made to construct certain planes of materials other than wood, and an increase in the supply of aluminum available for aircraft production had helped the situation. The War Production Board withdrew its request for park timber and by the end of the pressures on Olympic had virtually ceased. The Olympic Park case reveals that claimed conflicts are often less intractable than they appear at first view; that by forcing alternatives explicitly into the open, and by pursuing the facts behind the claims, we can often resolve concrete cases without having to weigh competing values in the abstract.
The tension between service of conventional recreation and the preservation of national parks will never wholly disappear, but the problem is not aided by posing questions such as How many acres of wilderness are enough?
Like the question of how many books a library should have, or how many Brahms symphonies are sufficient, these are empty canards. If the public accedes to the preservationist position, the task will be to hold on to as much national parkland as other irresistible public demands will tolerate. In dealing with conflict, one must always have a starting point.
If the goal is to encourage contemplative recreation in the parks, the way to do it is diligently to look for ways to meet other recreational demands more effectively at existing sites, and to scrutinize more carefully claims of need and demand.
The strategy is to increase the burden of proof that there is no alternative except the use of parklands: that is the lesson of Olympic Park. Beyond seeking alternatives, there is a serious question whether the pressures now being felt on public recreation lands are being unduly inflated. Ski resort proposals are among the most frequent and controversial sources of demand for intensive, urbanizing development of the public lands.
While they arise much more frequently in the national forests than in the parks, the problem of assessing and responding to demand is aptly illustrated by the ski resort problem.
One of the most hotly contested public recreation controversies of recent years arose out of a plan by Walt Disney Enterprises to build an alpine ski village in California's Mineral King Valley, on national forest land just at the southern rip of Sequoia National Park, northeast of Bakersfield. The valley floor, at an elevation of seventy-eight hundred feet, is dominated by striking peaks rising to more than twelve thousand feet above dramatic slopes, Skid Into The Turn (For Andrew Hill) - Pandelis Karayorgis / Nate McBride / Ken Vandermark - No Such Thing (CD).
Though there was active mining in the valley at one time, no commercial activity has been carried on recently, and the area has largely reverted to a primitive condition. Good weather, ample snowfall, and fine scenery make it a superlative site for both summer and winter recreation. The Mineral King proposal was bitterly opposed, and ultimately defeated, by citizen opposition, led by the Sierra Club. Why should even the most ardent defender of public lands have Skid Into The Turn (For Andrew Hill) - Pandelis Karayorgis / Nate McBride / Ken Vandermark - No Such Thing (CD) to the use of the valley for downhill skiing?
Opposition to the Disney plan seemed to be based on some version of the extreme positions that high-quality natural ecosystems should never be degraded, even when they are particularly well suited for skiing; that wilderness hiking or cross-country skiing should be preferred to alpine skiing; or that the recreational preferences of some public constituencies should simply be given priority over others. The controversy was made particularly baffling by the fact that the principal opponent of the Disney plan, the Sierra Club, was the very organization that had first suggested the site.
The problem arose this way. Substantial growth in Southern California's population during the mids threatened to make inadequate the available facilities for downhill skiing within easy reach of Los Angeles.
Ski enthusiasts urged the development of the nearby San Gorgonio area, which was within a national forest. Both the Forest Service, which traditionally played an entrepreneurial role in facilitating recreation development on national forest land, and the Sierra Club, which at that time routinely accompanied its opposition to any given site with efforts to find a more appropriate location, suggested the more remote Mineral King Valley.
The Forest Service then sought bids from private ski developers, as was its practice, but no responses were forthcoming, principally because access to Mineral King required the improvement of a road into the valley.
The cost of the new road was so great that it would have made commercial development economically impracticable. For some years the idea of developing Mineral King lay dormant, but by the mids Disney Enterprises, through adroit political effort, had obtained agreement by the state of California, with aid from a federal government agency, to finance the access road. Disney then asked the Forest Service to renew its request for bids to develop the valley, which it did.
Disney put forward a development proposal which was accepted. At this point, however, the Sierra Club decided to oppose construction of a ski resort at Mineral Skid Into The Turn (For Andrew Hill) - Pandelis Karayorgis / Nate McBride / Ken Vandermark - No Such Thing (CD). The issue became a celebrated national controversy; the Sierra Club sued to prevent the development, taking its case to the United States Supreme Court. Having originally suggested the Mineral King site, the Sierra Club could hardly avoid some embarrassment at the subsequent vigor with which it fought the Disney proposal.
There are many explanations for this shift of position, all of them no doubt accurate as far as they go. It is true, for example, that environmental consciousness was sharply on the rise during the time the new Mineral King development was urged; that a new urgency was given to the preservation of remaining wilderness; that the Sierra Club had itself changed character, becoming more preservationist in its outlook; and that the Disney plan was considerably more ambitious than anyone including the Forest Service had anticipated.
The accuracy of these considerations does not, however, adequately explain the intensity of opposition, and the symbolic meaning, that the Mineral King battle took on. For example, the developer's promise that modification of the natural resources would be minimized to the fullest extent consistent with a ski facility did not reduce the opposition, [ 8 ] for it soon became clear that the opponents were not interested in a well-developed ski resort, but wanted no ski resort at all.
Even a former Sierra Club president was unable to support, or find a justification, for such opposition. Breaking ranks with his colleagues, he said: ". His statement is perfectly appropriate, but like many participants on both sides of the battle, he failed to see through to the real issue.
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