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In Pope Lucius III required bishops to make a judicial inquiry, or inquisition, for heresy in their dioceses, a provision renewed by the fourth Lateran Council in In Pope Gregory IX appointed the first judges delegate as inquisitors for heretical depravity—many, though not all, of whom were Dominican and Franciscan friars.
Papal inquisitors had authority over everyone except bishops and their officials. There was no central authority to coordinate their activities, but after orwhen the first handbook of inquisitorial practice was written, inquisitors adopted common procedures. In Pope Innocent IV licensed inquisitors to allow obdurate heretics to be tortured by lay henchmen.
It is difficult to determine how common this practice was in the 13th century, but the inquisition certainly acquiesced in the use of torture in the trial of the Knights Templara military-religious order, in Persecution by the inquisition also contributed to the collapse of Catharisma dualist Inquisition - Singular Cleansweep Operations - Final Service (CD) that had great influence in southern France and northern Italy, by about ; although established to defeat that heresy, the inquisition was assisted by the pastoral work of the mendicant orders Inquisition - Singular Cleansweep Operations - Final Service (CD) its triumph over the Cathars.
The inquisition declined in importance in the late Middle Ages, though it continued to try cases of heresy—e. The most vigorous dissenting movements of the 15th century, Lollardy in England and Hussitism in Bohemia, were not subject to its jurisdiction. When instituting an inquiry in a district, an inquisitor would normally declare a period of grace during which those who voluntarily confessed their own involvement in heresy and that of others would be given only light penances.
The inquisitor used these confessions to compile a list of suspects whom he summoned to his tribunal. Failure to appear was considered evidence of guilt. The trial was often a battle of wits between the inquisitor and the accused. Although the term Inquisition is usually applied to ecclesiastical courts of the Catholic Church, it refers to a judicial process, not an organization.
The Inquisition, as a church-court, had no jurisdiction over Moors and Jews as such. The overwhelming majority of sentences seem to have consisted of penances like wearing a cross sewn on one's clothes, going on pilgrimage, etc.
Thus the inquisitors generally knew what would be the fate of anyone so remanded. The edition of the Directorium Inquisitorum a standard Inquisitorial manual spelled out the purpose of inquisitorial penalties Beforethe Catholic Church suppressed what they believed to be heresy, usually through a system of ecclesiastical proscription or imprisonment, but without using torture,  and seldom resorting to executions.
In the 12th century, Inquisition - Singular Cleansweep Operations - Final Service (CD), to counter the spread of Catharismprosecution of heretics became more frequent. The Church charged councils composed of bishops and archbishops with establishing inquisitions the Episcopal Inquisition. The first Inquisition was temporarily established in Languedoc south of France in The Inquisition was permanently established in Council of Toulouserun largely by the Dominicans  in Rome and later at Carcassonne in Languedoc.
Historians use the term "Medieval Inquisition" to describe the various inquisitions that started aroundincluding the Episcopal Inquisition —s and later the Papal Inquisition s. These inquisitions responded to large popular movements throughout Europe considered apostate or heretical to Christianityin particular the Cathars in southern France and the Waldensians in both southern France and northern Italy. Other Inquisitions followed after these first inquisition movements.
The legal basis for some inquisitorial activity came from Pope Innocent IV 's papal bull Ad extirpanda ofwhich explicitly authorized and defined the appropriate circumstances for the use of torture by the Inquisition for eliciting confessions from heretics.
By inquisitors were given absolution if they used instruments of torture. By the end of the Middle Ages, England and Castile were the only large western nations without a papal inquisition.
They used inquisitorial proceduresa common legal practice adapted from the earlier Ancient Roman court procedures. Aftera Grand Inquisitor headed each Inquisition. Grand Inquisitions persisted until the mid 19th century. While belief in witchcraftand persecutions directed at or excused by it, were widespread in pre-Christian Europe, and reflected in Germanic lawthe influence of the Church in the early medieval era resulted in the revocation of these laws in many places, bringing an end to traditional pagan witch hunts.
The fierce denunciation and persecution of supposed sorceresses that characterized the cruel witchhunts of a later age were not generally found in the first thirteen hundred years of the Christian era.
Bonfires on Midsummer's Eve were intended to deflect natural catastrophes or the influence of fairies, ghosts, and witches. Plants, often harvested under particular conditions, were deemed effective in healing. Black magic was that which was used for a malevolent purpose. This was generally dealt with through confession, repentance, and charitable work assigned as penance.
In Pope Alexander IV ruled that inquisitors should limit their involvement to those cases in which there was some clear presumption of heretical belief. The prosecution of witchcraft generally became more prominent throughout the late medieval and Renaissance era, perhaps driven partly by the upheavals of the era — the Black Death, Hundred Years' War, and a gradual cooling of the climate that modern scientists call the Little Ice Age between about the 15th and 19th centuries.
Witches were sometimes blamed. Dominican priest Heinrich Kramer was assistant to Inquisition - Singular Cleansweep Operations - Final Service (CD) Archbishop of Salzburg. In Kramer requested that Pope Innocent VIII clarify his authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germanywhere he had been refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities. They maintained that Kramer could not legally function in their areas. Golzer described Kramer as senile in letters written shortly after the incident.
This rebuke led Kramer to write a justification of his views on witchcraft in his book Malleus Maleficarumwritten in In the book, Kramer stated his view that witchcraft was to blame for bad weather.
The book is also noted for its animus against women. In the Spanish Inquisition cautioned its members not to believe everything the Malleus said. Portugal and Spain in the late Middle Ages consisted largely of multicultural territories of Muslim and Jewish influence, reconquered from Islamic controland the new Christian authorities could not assume that all their subjects would suddenly become and remain orthodox Roman Catholics.
In the pogroms of June in Seville, hundreds of Jews were killed, and the synagogue was completely destroyed. One of the consequences of these pogroms was the mass conversion of thousands of surviving Jews. Forced baptism was contrary to the law of the Catholic Church, and theoretically anybody who had been forcibly baptized could legally return to Judaism.
However, this was very narrowly interpreted. Legal definitions of the time theoretically acknowledged that a forced baptism was not a valid sacrament, but confined this Inquisition - Singular Cleansweep Operations - Final Service (CD) cases where it was literally administered by physical force.
A person who had consented to baptism under threat of death or serious injury was still regarded as a voluntary convert, and accordingly forbidden to revert to Judaism. In contrast to the previous inquisitions, it operated completely under royal Christian authority, though staffed by clergy and orders, and independently of the Holy See. It operated in Spain and in all Spanish colonies and territories, which included the Canary Islandsthe Kingdom of Naples[ citation needed ] and all Spanish possessions in North, Central, and South America.
It primarily focused upon forced converts from Islam MoriscosConversos and secret Moors and from Judaism ConversosCrypto-Jews and Marranos —both groups still resided in Spain after the end of the Islamic control of Spain —who came under suspicion of either continuing to adhere to their old religion or of having fallen back into it. In all Jews who had not converted were expelled from Spain; those who converted became nominal Catholics and thus subject to the Inquisition.
At its head stood a Grande Inquisidoror General Inquisitor, named by the Pope but selected by the Crown, and always from within the royal family. Blurring the lines between Dark Ambient. Industrial and Noise. Sistrenatus storms forth. Re-issue of great Russian industrial from 90's! A retrospective of the first era of post-industrial legend from the North of Russia - Arkhangelsk.
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