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I've kept my temper as long as I could; but, dash it all, if you force me to speak out, I will! He was maddeningly sure of himself, and while he sometimes gave back thrust for thrust, he never lost his temper.
His temper was well known; Monsieur Popinot, who had examined him, had not been able to get anything out of him. Stroll Tempar you dare—through the words from June 22 to 28! Origin of temper before ; v.
See disposition. See modify. Words nearby temper temptemp. Words related to temper climatehumormoodattitudedispositiontemperamentspiritpersonalitytantrumimpatienceragefurysensitivityresentmentpassionangerireoutburstself-controlcomposure. Diagnosing Jane, Louis C. An American Suffragette Isaac N. Myths and Legends of All Nations Various.
Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. The Land of Promise D. They were not, however, strictly cloistered, as were the monks, nor were they expected to perform devotional reading most Templars were uneducated and unable to read Latin. The Templars gradually expanded their duties from protecting pilgrims to mounting a broader defense of the Crusader states in the Holy Land.
They built castles, garrisoned important towns, and participated in battles, fielding significant contingents against Muslim armies until the fall of Acrethe last remaining Crusader stronghold in the Holy Land, in By the midth century the constitution of the order and its basic structure were established.
It was headed by a grand master, who was elected for life and served in Jerusalem. Templar territories were divided into provinces, which were governed by provincial commanders, and each individual house, called a preceptory, was headed by a preceptor.
General chapter meetings of all members of the order were held to address important matters affecting the Templars and to elect a new master when necessary. Similar meetings were held at the provincial level and on a weekly basis in each house. The Templars were originally divided into two classes: knights and sergeants.
The knight-brothers came from the military aristocracy and were trained in the arts of war. They assumed elite leadership positions in the order and served at royal and papal courts.
The sergeants, or serving-brothers, who were usually from lower social classes, made up the majority of members. They dressed in black habits and served as both warriors and servants. The Templars eventually added a third class, the chaplains, who were responsible for holding religious services, administering the sacraments, and addressing the spiritual needs of the other members.
Although women were not allowed to join the order, there seems to have been at least one Templar nunnery. The Templars eventually acquired great wealth. The kings and great nobles of SpainFrance, and England gave lordships, castles, seigniories, and estates to the order, so that by the midth century the Templars owned properties scattered throughout western Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Holy Land.
The Templars were not without enemies, however. They had long engaged in a bitter rivalry with the other great military order of Europe, the Hospitallersand, by the late 13th century, proposals were being made to merge the two contentious orders into one. Philip accused the Templars of heresy and immorality; specific charges against them included idol worship of a bearded male head said to have great powersworship of a cat, homosexualityand numerous other errors of belief and practice.
The charges, now recognized to be without foundation, were calculated to stoke contemporary fears of heretics, witches, and demons and were similar to allegations Philip had used against Pope Boniface VIII.
The reasons why Philip sought to destroy the Templars are unclear; he may have genuinely feared their Tempar and been motivated by his own piety to destroy a heretical group, or he may have simply seen an opportunity to seize their immense wealth, being chronically Tempar of money himself.
At any rate, Philip mercilessly pursued the order and had many of its members tortured to secure false confessions. Although Pope Clement Vhimself a Frenchman, ordered the arrest of all the Templars in Novembera church council in voted overwhelmingly against suppression, and Templars in countries other than France were found innocent of the charges. Brought before a commission established by the pope, de Molay and other leaders were judged relapsed heretics and sentenced to life in prison.
The master protested and repudiated his confession and was burned at the stakethe last victim of a highly unjust and opportunistic persecution. At the time of its destruction, the order was an important institution in both Europe and the Holy Land and already an object of myth and legend. The Templars were associated with the Grail legend and were identified as defenders of the Grail castle through the remainder of the Middle Ages.
In the 18th century the Freemasons claimed to have received in a secret line of succession esoteric knowledge that the Templars had possessed. Later fraternal orders similarly invoked the Templar name to bolster claims of ancient or revealed wisdom. The Templars were also identified as gnostics and were accused of involvement in a number of conspiraciesTempar, including one that was allegedly behind the French Revolution.
In the 20th century the image of Christ on the Shroud of Turin was identified as the head allegedly worshipped by the Templars. Resurrecting a vein of pseudohistory and Grail legendsauthors in the 20th century, claiming to assert historical fact but writing what most scholars Tempar as fantasy, implicated the Templars in a vast conspiracy dedicated to preserving the bloodline of Jesus. Similar occult conspiracy theories were also used by writers of fiction in the 20th and 21st centuries.
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